ACIDS, ANTIOXIDANTS, MINERAL SALTS

(296-385)
"Modern medicine" may well be defined as "the experimental study of what
happens when poisonous chemicals are placed into malnourished human bodies."
A. Saul Contributing Editor,
Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine
Number Name Comments
296
E296
Malic acid,
DL-Malic acid
Occurs in two chiral molecules, the D- and L- forms. L-malic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is used in the body to derive ATP from food. It is found in many fruits and vegetables, especially apples. Malic acid may aid in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Commercial malic acid is usually a mixture of the two types, synthesised by heating maleic acid with dilute sulphuric acid, under pressure. Typical products include tinned fruit, vegetables and pulses, jams, jelly, frozen vegetables, fruit squash. Infants and young children should avoid it. Found in potato snacks, confectionary, spaghetti sauce, frozen vegetables, tinned tomatoes.
297
E297
Fumaric acid Derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis or from the fermentation of glucose with fungi; can be used to flavour, acidify, as an antioxidant or raising agent used in soft drinks and cake mixes. No known side effects.
300
E300
Ascorbic acid Antioxidant, colour and preservative. The body stores little ascorbic acid or vitamin C, so this must be provided on a daily basis in the diet. Good sources of vitamin C include citrus fruit, raw cabbage, strawberries and tomatoes. Vitamin C has been shown to prevent scurvy, and is essential for healthy blood vessels, bones, and teeth. Vitamin C also helps form collagen, a protein that holds tissues together. Ascorbic acid is industrially synthesised using a number of different biological techniques. Flour treating agent, 'vitamin C'; may be made synthetically from glucose, naturally occurs in fruit and vegetables; added to products as diverse as cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine. Large doses can cause dental erosion, vomiting, diarrhoea dizziness, and could possibly cause kidney stones if more than 10g is taken. Should be taken under medical advice if suffering from kidney stones, gout or anaemia. Other names: l-ascorbic acid, l,3-ketothreohexuronic acid.
301
E301
Sodium ascorbate Antioxidant, preservative and colour. Sodium salt of vitamin C. See 300. Other names: ascorbic acid sodium salt, ascorbicin, ascorbin, cebitate, cenolate, monosodium ascorbate.
302
E302
Calcium ascorbate Vitamin C, may increase the formation of calcium axalate stones. See 300.
303
E303
Potassium ascorbate Potassium salt of vitamin C. See 300.
304
E304
Ascorbyl palmitate, Ascorbyl stearate (i) Ascorbyl palmitate is formed from the esterification of palmitic acid and ascorbic acid together. It is used as a source of vitamin C, and as an antioxidant in food, and has many applications as it is soluble in fats at high temperatures. See also E300. Typical products include cereal, processed meat products.

(ii) Ascorbyl stearate is formed from the esterification of stearic acid and ascorbic acid together. It is used as a source of vitamin C, and as an antioxidant in food. See also E300. Typical products include cereal, processed meat products.
306
E306
Tocopherols concentrate, mix Extracts obtained from soya bean oil, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize and green leaves are rich in naturally occurring vitamin E, and are used in food as antioxidants as well as sources of vitamin enrichment. These tocopherols include alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols. Vitamin E is an essential requirement foe red blood cells and aids supply of oxygen to the heart and muscles. It also acts as an antioxidant in the body by reducing radical species e.g. oxygen radicals and breaking the propagation chain of lipid oxidation. Typical products include vegetable oils, meat products.
307
E307
alpha-Tocopherol (synthetic) This alpha-tocopherol is chemically synthesised and is used as an antioxidant and source of vitamin E in food. See also E306. Typical products include synthetically vitamin enriched foods, processed meat products.
308
E308
gamma-Tocopherol (synthetic) This gamma-tocopherol is chemically synthesised and is used as an antioxidant and source of vitamin E in food. See also E306. Typical products include synthetically vitamin enriched foods, processed meat products.
309
E309
delta-Tocopherol (synthetic) This delta-tocopherol is chemically synthesised and is used as an antioxidant and source of vitamin E in food. See also E306. Typical products include synthetically vitamin enriched foods, processed meat products.
310
E310
Propyl gallate Used to prevent rancidity in oily substances; derived from nutgalls; may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging. It is used as an antioxidant in food, often with BHT (E321) and BHA (E320), although it has limited use as it is unstable at high temperatures.
311
E311
Octyl gallate Octyl gallate is synthesised by the esterification of gallic acid. It is used as an antioxidant in food, often with BHT (E321) and BHA (E320), although it has limited use as it is unstable at high temperatures. Typical products include oils and fats, cereals, snack foods, dairy produce. See 310.
312
E312
Dodecyl gallate Dodecyl gallate is synthesised by the esterification of gallic acid. It is used as an antioxidant in food, often with BHT (E321) and BHA (E320), although it has limited use as it is unstable at high temperatures. Typical products include oils and fats, cereals, snack foods, dairy produce. See 310.
313 Thiodipropionic acid Synthetic anti-oxidant. Anti-oxidant in fatty products, especially added to prevent rancidity. Found in oils and fats, (cosmetics). Up to 3 mg/kg body weight. Side effects: None known in the concentrations used. Can normally be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.
314 Guaiac Gum Natural resin from the tree Guajacum officinale and some related tropical trees. Anti-oxidant in cola products. Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. No known side effects in the concentrations used, although some allergies have been reported. Can normally be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.
315
E315
Erythorbic acid Produced from sucrose. No know side effects. Other names: araboascorbic acid, d-isoascorbic acid, glucosaccharonic acid, erycorbin, saccharosonic acid
316
E316
Sodium erythorbate See 315.
317
E317
Erythorbic acid Produced from sucrose. No know side effects. Related to ascorbic acid but lacks any vitamin value.  Found in frozen fish, preserved meat and fish, and other foods that use ascorbic acid.
E318 Sodium erythorbate Sodium salt of 317. No know side effects.
319
E319
Butylhydroxinon
tert-Butylhydroquinone
Petroleum based; the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 0.02 mg/kg body weight. A dose of 5g is considered fatal. Typical products are dairy blend edible fats and oils, margarine, dripping, salad dressing, lipsticks. Can normally be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.
320
E320
Butylated hydroxy-anisole (BHA) Petroleum derivative, BHA is a synthetic analogue of vitamin E and operates by reducing oxygen radicals and interrupting the propagation of oxidation processes. It is widely used as an antioxidant and preservative, and is prepared from p-methoxyphenol and isobutene. BHA can be used in baked products as it is stable at high temperatures, it is mainly used to prevent rancidity in fats and oils. Typical products include biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products, sweets, edible oils, chewing gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, polyethylene food wraps; not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects, in large doses caused tumours in lab animals, banned in Japan in 1958, official committees of experts recommended that it be banned in the UK, however due to industry pressure it was not banned, McDonald's eliminated BHT from their US products by 1986. Other names: tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, BOA, (1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methoxyphenol
321
E321
Butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT) Petroleum derivative; BHT is a synthetic analogue of vitamin E and operates by reducing oxygen radicals and interrupting the propagation of oxidation processes. It is widely used as an antioxidant and preservative, and is prepared from p-cresol and isobutylene. It is one of the most commonly used antioxidants for food oils and fats and is much cheaper than BHA although it has more limited applications due to instability at high temperatures. There is evidence that BHT causes cell division. Typical products include biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products, sweets.see 320. Other names: 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol
322
E322
Lecithin's Lecithins are also known as phosphatidylcholines, and are examples of phopholipids, or esters of glycerol, where two ester bonds are to fatty acids and the third is to a phosphoric acid derivative. Most commercial lecithin is extracted from soya beans, egg yolks and leguminous seeds, corn or animal resources; non toxic; used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate, mayonnaise, milk powder, potato chips, puddings, breakfast cereals.. Lecithins play important roles in the transmission of nerve impulses as well as fulfilling other biological functions. They are present in all living cells and are significant constituents of nerve and brain tissues. Lecithins are capable of forming micelles in aqueous solution hence are employed in foods as emulsifiers. Egg allergy.
325
E325
Sodium lactate See 270. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses. Also produced in large amounts in the large intestine by the resident bacteria. No side effects in adults. D- or DL-lactates (stereoisomers) should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate. E270, and is used as a humectant and antioxidant in food. It is capable of increasing the antioxidant effects of other substances. It is hygroscopic hence is used in such products where its ability to absorb moisture helps to extend shelf life. Sometimes used as a substitute for glycerol. Found in biscuits, cheese, confectionary, wide range of foods. Other names: lacolin, lactic acid sodium salt. lactic acid and lactates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although the name refers to milk, it is not made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance.
326
E326
Potassium lactate See 325. lactic acid and lactates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although the name refers to milk, it is not made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. No side effects in adults. D- or DL-lactates (stereoisomers) should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate. Potassium lactate is hygroscopic, hence is used in foods where it is used to help retain moisture. It is used in meat and poultry to control food-borne pathogenic bacteria and to protect and enhance meat flavour. Typical products include cakes, ice cream, jelly, sweets, jam, processed meat.
327
E327
Calcium lactate See 325. Calcium salt of lactic acid (E270), a natural acid produced by bacteria in fermented foods. All fermented foods are very rich in lactic acid. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses. Also produced in large amounts in the large intestine by the resident bacteria. It is capable of increasing the antioxidant effects of other substances. It is hygroscopic hence is used in such products where its ability to absorb moisture helps to extend shelf life. Sometimes used as a substitute for glycerol. Typical products include jams, margarines, cheese, sweets, ice cream, cakes. Other names: calcium lactate 5-hydrate, calcium lactate, 2-hydroxypropanoic acid calcium salt pentahydrate. No side effects in adults. D- or DL-lactates (stereoisomers) should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate. Lactic acid and lactates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although the name refers to milk, it is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance.
328
E328
Ammonium lactate See 325.
329
E329
Magnesium lactate See 325. Magnesium lactate is the magnesium salt of lactic acid, E270, and is used as a humectant and antioxidant in food. It is capable of increasing the antioxidant effects of other substances. It is hygroscopic hence is used in such products where its ability to absorb moisture helps to extend shelf life. Sometimes used as a substitute for glycerol. Typical products include jams, margarines, cheese, sweets, ice cream, cakes. No side effects in adults. D- or DL-lactates (stereoisomers) should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate. Lactic acid and lactates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although the name refers to milk, it is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance.
330
E330
Citric acid Food acid, naturally derived from citrus fruit, although commercial synthesis is by fermentation of molasses. It is used in food as an antioxidant as well as enhancing the effect of other antioxidants, and also as an acidity regulator. Present in virtually all plants, it was first isolated in 1784 from lemon juice, by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and has been used as a food additive for over 100 years. Used in biscuits, canned fish, cheese and processed cheese products, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes, rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products.  Damages tooth enamel.  Most citric acid is produced from corn, manufacturers do not always take out the protein which can be hydrolysed and create MSG (621) causing reactions in MSG-sensitive people.
331
E331
Sodium citrates (i) Monosodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as an antioxidant in food as well as to improve the effects of other antioxidants. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant. Typical products include gelatine products, jam, sweets, ice cream, carbonated beverages, milk powder, wine, processed cheeses.

(ii) Disodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as an antioxidant in food as well as to improve the effects of other antioxidants. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant.
 Typical products include gelatine products, jam, sweets, ice cream, carbonated beverages, milk powder, wine, processed cheeses.

(iii) Trisodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as an antioxidant in food as well as to improve the effects of other antioxidants. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant.
 Typical products include gelatine products, jam, sweets, ice cream, carbonated beverages, milk powder, wine, processed cheeses.
332
E332
Potassium citrates (i) Monopotassium citrate is the potassium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as an antioxidant in food as well as to improve the effects of other antioxidants. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant. Typical products include gelatine products, jam, sweets, ice cream, carbonated beverages, milk powder, wine, processed cheeses. 

(ii) Tripotassium citrate  is the potassium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as an antioxidant in food as well as to improve the effects of other antioxidants. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant. Typical products include gelatine products, jam, sweets, ice cream, carbonated beverages, milk powder, wine, processed cheeses.
333
E333
Calcium citrates (i) Monocalcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as a firming agent in food. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant. Typical products include gelatine products, ice cream, wine, carbonated beverages, sweets, jams, evaporated and condensed milk, milk powder, processed cheeses.

(ii) Dicalcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as a firming agent in food. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant. Typical products include gelatine products, ice cream, wine, carbonated beverages, sweets, jams, evaporated and condensed milk, milk powder, processed cheeses.

(iii) Tricalcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid, E330, and is used as a firming agent in food. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant. Typical products include gelatine products, ice cream, wine, carbonated beverages, sweets, jams, evaporated and condensed milk, milk powder, processed cheeses. No known adverse effects in small quantities.   In tinned vegetables and many of 330. Wide range of foods.
334
E334
Tartaric acid (L(+)-) Tartaric acid exists as a pair of enantiomers and an achiral meso compound. (+)-tartaric acid commonly occurs in nature and can be found in fruit, and sometimes in wine. Tartaric acid is industrially synthesised as a by-product during wine making, and it is used in food as an antioxidant and synergist to increase the antioxidant effect of other substances. It is also used as an acidity regulator and sequestrant. Excessive ingestion of tartaric acid results in laxative effects. Typical products include baking powder, chewing gum, jams, sweets, jelly, tinned fruit and vegetables, cocoa powder, frozen dairy produce.
335
E335
Sodium tartrates (i) Monosodium tartrate is a sodium salt of tartaric acid, E334, used mainly as an antioxidant and synergist in food, as well as an acidity regulator. See E334. Typical products include sweets, jelly, jams, carbonated beverages. 

(ii) Disodium tartrate is a sodium salt of tartaric acid, E334, used mainly as an antioxidant and synergist in food, as well as an acidity regulator. See E334. Typical products include sweets, jelly, jams, carbonated beverages.  People with cardiac failure, high blood pressure, damaged liver or kidneys, and fluid retention.  Found in most types of foods.

Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight.

336
E336
Potassium tartrates (i) Monopotassium tartrate (cream of tartar) is a potassium salt of tartaric acid, E334, used mainly as an antioxidant and synergist in food, as well as an acidity regulator. See E334. Typical products include wine, citrus dessert mixes, sweets, jelly, jams, carbonated beverages.

(ii) Dipotassium tartrate is a potassium salt of tartaric acid, E334, used mainly as an antioxidant and synergist in food, as well as an acidity regulator. See E334. Typical products include wine, citrus dessert mixes, sweets, jelly, jams, carbonated beverages.
337 Potassium sodium tartrate Food acid; See 335.
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate Sodium potassium tartrate is a derivative of tartaric acid, E334, and is used in food as a buffer and antioxidant. There are no known adverse health effects and it is used medically as a bowel evacuant. Typical products include meat and cheese products, jams, margarine. See 335.
338
E338
Phosphoric acid Orthophosphoric acid can only be obtained pure in the crystalline state and slowly undergoes dehydration to diphosphoric acid. Crystalline phosphoric acid has a hydrogen-bonded layer structure in which each molecule is attached to 6 others. Impure phosphoric acid has its main application in fertilisers, and also in the synthesis of pure phosphoric acid. In turn pure phosphoric acid is used in food, detergents, pharmaceuticals and metal treatment (e.g. pickling, cleaning, rust-proofing, polishing). Car bodies and electrical appliances are all protected against rust and blistering by the presence of a phosphatised undercoat. Phosphoric acid is used in the production of activated carbon, and may be used in soft drinks to give a sour taste.
"Thermal" phosphoric acid is made by oxidation of phosphorus in the presence of water vapour whilst "wet" acid is made by treating rock phosphate with sulphuric acid.
Phosphoric acid is added to food to enhance the antioxidant effects of other compounds present, and also as an acidity regulator. Typical products include carbonated beverages, processed meat, chocolate, fats and oils, beer, jam, sweets. Too much in diet leads to loss of calcium in bones and onset of osteoporosis.  In fizzy drinks it allows more carbon dioxide concentration without bottle burst.  Soft drinks, beer, cheese products, snacks, and most processed foods. Other names: orthophosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid is banned in organic food and drinks. Phosphoric acid is a highly acidic ingredient in cola drinks, used to offset the extreme sweetness. The way the kidneys excrete it is by bonding it with calcium taken from the bones, which can then leave the bones porous and brittle, and increase the risk of osteoporosis. A study, published in the Archives of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine in 2000, showed that athletic teenage girls who consume cola drinks have been found to have five times the risk of bone fractures of those athletic girls who do not consume cola drinks. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. Phosphoric acid and phosphates can normally be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although animal bones are mainly made up of phosphates, commercial phosphate is not made from bones.
339
E339
Sodium phosphates (i) Monosodium phosphate
Monosodium phosphate is a sodium salt of phosphoric acid and is a water-soluble acid, hence is used in effervescent laxative tablets, as a mild phosphatising agent for steel surfaces, as a component in metal paint undercoats, and a fixing agent in textile dyeing. It is added to food to act as an antioxidant synergist, a stabiliser and a buffer. Typical products include processed meat products, processed cheese products. ; high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium.  Other names: Sodium biphosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate.

(ii) Disodium phosphate - Disodium phosphate is a sodium salt of orthophosphoric acid and is used as an antioxidant synergist, stabiliser and buffering agent in food. It is also used as an emulsifier in the manufacture of pasteurised processed cheese. Disodium phosphate is added to powdered milk to prevent gelation. Typical products include processed meat products, processed cheese products, powdered milk. Other names: disodium hydrogen phosphate, disodium orthophosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, disodium monohydrogen phosphate, phosphoric acid disodium salt.

(iii) Trisodium phosphate - Trisodium phosphate is a sodium salt of orthophosphoric acid and is used as an antioxidant synergist, stabiliser and buffering agent in food. Typical products include processed meat products, processed cheese products.
340
E340
Potassium phosphates (i) Monopotassium phosphate is a potassium salt of phosphoric acid used as an antioxidant synergist, buffer and emulsifier in food. Typical products include sauce and dessert mixes, jelly products.

(ii) Dipotassium phosphate is a potassium salt of phosphoric acid used as an antioxidant synergist, buffer and emulsifier in food. Typical products include cooked and other cured meats, milk and cream powders, drinking chocolate. Other names: dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate, phosphoric acid dipotassium salt, potassium hydrogen phosphate.

(iii) Tripotassium phosphate is a potassium salt of phosphoric acid used as an antioxidant synergist, buffer and emulsifier in food. Typical products include cooked and other cured meats, milk and cream powders, drinking chocolate.

340 Ammonium phosphates No known adverse effects.
341
E341
Calcium phosphates (i) Monocalcium phosphate - Available commercially in the anhydrous or monohydrate form. Both are used as a leavening acid to replace cream of tartar in foods, 'straight baking powder' is a mixture of monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Monocalcium phosphate is used extensively in the fertiliser industry, when it was noted in 1880 that acidulated bones (containing tricalcium phosphate) made good fertiliser. Typical products include self-raising flour, baking powder, cake and pastry mixes, cakes and other pastry products, medicines as an antacid and polishing agent in enamels and as baking agent. In some self raising flours. Other names: calcium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate, calcium tetrahydrogen diorthophosphate.

(ii) Dicalcium phosphate - Manufactured from phophoric acid, dicalcium phosphate is used as an antioxidant in food, an abrasive agent in toothpaste (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) as well as being a firming agent. Available in the anhydrous or dihydrate forms. Typical products include tinned and packaged fruit deserts, granular food products. Other names: Calcium hydrogen orthophosphate, calcium phosphate dibasic.

(iii)Tricalcium phosphate - Some form of tricalcium phosphate is found to make up 60% of non-cellular bone structure and 70% of teeth in an average adult. Synthetic tricalcium phosphate is added to table salt, sugar, baking powder and fertilisers to give a 'free-flowing' quality. It is prepared from naturally derived calcium phosphate. Typical products include salt, sugar and other granular foods, packet sauce mixes, cake mixes etc. Other names: tricalcium diorthophosphate, calcium phosphate tribasic.
343
E343
Magnesium phosphates (i) monomagnesium phosphate
(ii) Dimagnesium phosphate
Essential mineral, anticaking agent found in salt substitutes, sweetened coconut and prepared mustard.
350 Sodium malates
(DL-Sodium hydrogen malate)
Sodium salt of malic acid.  Flavouring buffer and seasoning agent.  Sweetened coconut, low salt substitute, all fruit drinks, soft drinks, dairy blend. No known adverse effects. See 296.
E350 Sodium malates
(Sodium hydrogen malate)
No known adverse effects. See 350.
351
E351
Potassium malate No known adverse effects. See 350.
352 DL-Calcium malate No known adverse effects. See 350.
E352 Calcium malates No known adverse effects. See 350.
353
E353
Metatartaric acid No known adverse effects. Used to precipitate excess calcium in wine making.
354
E354
Calcium tartrate Calcium salt of tartaric acid. Seems safe. Food acid and modifying agent in infant foods.
355
E355
Adipic acid Synthetic food acid from nitric acid or from the beet root. Only a small amount can be metabolised by humans and is listed as having teratogenic properties. Eye irritant. Firming and raising agent used in baking powder, beer, all fruit drinks, jams, pudding mixes, ice blocks, margarine, etc.
E356 Sodium adipate Sodium salt of adipic acid, a natural acid present in beets and sugar cane (juice). Acidity regulator. Found in Herbal salts. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Side effects: None known; it is metabolised in the body or excreted in the urine.
357
E357
Potassium adipose Potassium salt of adipic acid. Firming and raising agent in baked goods, beer, chewing gum, all drinks, desserts. No known adverse effects
363
E363
Succinic acid Banned in Australia. Naturally occurring in some animals and plants. Powdered drinks, puddings and soups (but used in medicine(?))
365
E365
Sodium fumarate Food acid, salt of fumaric acid (derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis). strengthens bread dough in bread machinery, gives even grain and greater volume.  In dried, liquid, or frozen egg whites and artificial whipped cream. No known adverse affects.
366
E366
Potassium fumarate Salt of fumaric acid. Food acid. No known adverse effects.  Regulates acidity in jams, makes gelatine set.
367
E367
Calcium fumarate Salt of fumaric acid. Food acid. No known adverse effects.  See 366
370
E370
1,4-Heptonolactone Avoid it.  Powdered dessert and dried soup. Synthetic product, prepared from hydroxy-heptanoic acid.
375
E375
Nicotinic acid, Niacin, Nicotinamide Nicotinic acid is a B vitamin, found naturally in yeast, liver and legumes, and is used in food as a colour retention agent as well as a B vitamin. It is essential for metabolism and the nervous system. Typical products include bread, flour, cereal. Other names: Pyridine-B-carboxylic acid, niacin.
380 Ammonium citrates Food acid. May interfere with liver and pancreas function.
E380 Tri-ammonium citrate Food acid. May interfere with liver and pancreas function.
381 Ferric ammonium citrates Food acid. Essential mineral, food acid derived from citric acid; used as a dietary iron supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas. Unsafe in large amounts.
E381 Ammonium ferric citrates Food acid. Essential mineral, food acid derived from citric acid; used as a dietary iron supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas. Unsafe in large amounts.
385
E385
Calcium disodium (EDTA) ethylene diamine tetraacetate Synthetic flavour, texture retainer, anti-gushing agent in beer, preservative, sequestrant and colour promoter. Causes mineral imbalance. Known enzyme and blood coagulant inhibitor. Gastrointestinal disturbances, blood in urine, kidney damage and muscle cramps are side effects. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.  Watch for imported goods. Canned soft drink, tinned white potatoes, salad dressings, egg products, oleomargarine, potato salad, lima beans, mushrooms, pecan pie filling, sandwich spreads
386  EDTA: Disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate A synthetic compound. Metal scavenger, stabiliser (also used after heavy metal intoxication to remove metals from the body).  Found in many different products. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Side effects: None known in the concentrations used. Long-term exposure to high doses may result in depletion of metal(s) from the body (iron).
387 Oxystearin Mixture of glycerides of stearic acid and other fatty acids. Metal scavenger and stabiliser (to prevent crystallisation in fats and oils). Found in oils and fats, sugar, yeast products, etc. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Side effects: None known in the concentrations used. The body treats it as fat. Although commercially (nearly always) prepared from vegetable oil, fatty acids of animal origin (incl. pork) cannot be excluded.
388 Thiodipropionic acid Synthetic compound. Anti-oxidant. Products: Oils and fats, but used mainly in cosmetics. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 3 mg/kg body weight. Side effects:
None known in the concentrations used.

* Hyperactive Children Support Group (HACSG) (Canada)

İMBM
PO Box 44, Klemzig, South Australia, 5087