VEGETABLE GUMS, EMULSIFIERS, STABILISERS etc.

(400-495)
"He's the best physician that knows the worthlessness of most medicines."
"God heals and the Doctor takes the fee." - Benjamin Franklin, (1706-1790).
Number Name Comments
400
E400
Alginic acid Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; artificial sweetener base, used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, pastry, jelly, ice cream, cheese, confectionary, canned icing, beer thickened cream and yoghurt. No known adverse effects in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients. The algae extract is called 'Carrageenan' (407).
401
E401
Sodium alginate See 400.
402
E402
Potassium alginate See 400.
403
E403
Ammonium alginate See 400.
404
E404
Calcium alginate See 400.
405 Propylene glycol alginate Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from petroleum. Artificial sweetener base, preservative, used in germicides, paint remover and antifreeze. Allergic reactions but not enough tests done. See 1520 (propylene glycol).
E405 Propane-1,2-diol alginate Propylene ester of alginic acid. Emulsifier, stabiliser. See 405.
406
E406
Agar agar  Agar-Agar is produced from members of the Gelidiacae, Sphaerococcaceae and Rhodophyceae seaweed families. It is used in food as a gelling agent, although the resulting coagulation is rather brittle and not as effective as carrageenan or gelatin. Typical products include ice cream and frozen desserts, meringue, icings, sweets, fondants, cream and milk, yogurt, sometimes used as a laxative. Other names: polysaccharide complex.
407
E407
Carrageenan
'Irish Moss'
Fibre extracted from seaweed, used as a setting agent.  It has recently been linked with cancer because it may become contaminated when ethylene oxide is added to an inferior product, this results in ethylene chlorohydrin forming, a highly carcinogenic compound; linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious concerns relate to degraded carrageenan, which is not a permitted additive; however, native carrageenan, which is used, may become degraded in the gut. See 400.
407(a)
E407(a)
Processed euchuema seaweed Fibre extracted from seaweed. See 407.
408 Furcelleran A natural polysaccharide, produced from seaweed (Furcellaria fastigata) in Denmark. Sometimes it is placed under E407, due to the fact that they have similar chemical structures. Thickening agent, stabiliser and emulsifier. Products for diabetics. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 75 mg/kg body weight.
Side effects: None known in the concentrations used, although high concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating, due to fermentation by the intestinal microflora (in the same way as all indigestible polysaccharides). Can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.
409 Aribinogalactan
Larch Gum
Thickener and vegetable gum.
410
E410
Locust bean (Carob gum) Derived from Carob or Locust bean tree Ceratonia siliqua. As a thickener, vegetable gum, artificial sweetener base, modifying agent or stabiliser, it is used in lollies, cordials, essences, some flour products, dressings, fruit juice drinks; frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute; may lower cholesterol levels.
E411 Oat Gum A natural polysaccharide, produced from oats .  Thickening agent.  Practically not used. Acceptable Daily Intake: None specified. Side effects: None known in the concentrations used, although high concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating, due to fermentation by the intestinal microflora (in the same way as all indigestible polysaccharides). Oat gum can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.
412
E412
Guar gum Derived from the Seeds of Cyamoposis tetragonolobus of Indian origin; fed to cattle in the US; can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduced cholesterol levels.  See 410.
413
E413
Tragacanth Resin form the tree Astragalus gummifer; used in foods, drugs including nasal solutions, elixirs and tablets; also used as a binder in cosmetics; possible contact allergy. Can cause asthma attacks, diarrhoea, gas, constipation and skin rashes.  See 410.
414 Acacia Gum,
Gum Arabic
Derived from the sap of Acacia Sengal; consists of high molecular weight polysaccharides which can be used to produce arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid. Gum arabic is used in food as a thickener, stabiliser, glazing agent and emulsifier, and is readily water-soluble. Easily broken down by the human digestive system; possible allergen, and may cause asthma and skin rash. Soothes irritations of mucous membranes. Typical products include chewing gum, sweets, jelly, fondants, beer, soft drinks, fruit squash, wine. See 410. May cause weak allergic reaction in some individuals. May act as an irritant.
415
E415
Xanthin gum Derived from the fermentation of corn sugar with a bacterium. Improves 'flow'. No know affects.  See 410.
416
E416
Karaya gum Derived from the tree Sterculia urens; often used in conjunction with Carob (410), in ice cream, custard and sweets, as a filler for its capability to multiply its volume by 100 times with the addition of water, can be used as a laxative; possible allergen and in powdered form causes asthma, urticarisa, rhinitis, and dermatitis.  See 410.
E417 Tara gum
Karaya gum
Stabiliser. No known side effects, powdered form may cause allergies. Used in ice-cream and cosmetics.  See 410.
E418 Gellan gum A bacterial exopolysaccharide, prepared commercially by aerobic submerged fermentation from Sphingomonas elodea. Soluble in water, it is used primarily as an alternative to agar as a gelling agent in microbiological culture. Its largest advantages over agar are its almost perfect visual clarity and its strength; it is able to withstand 120 degree Celsius heat, making it especially useful in culturing thermophilic organisms. One needs only approximately half the amount of gellan gum as agar to reach an equivalent gel strength, though the exact texture and quality depends on the concentration of divalent cations present.
420
E420
Sorbitol
(Sorbitol syrup)
Artificial sweetener and humectant; derived from glucose, either obtained from berries of the Sorbus aucuparia tree or synthesised; used in confectionary, dried fruit, pastries, low calorie foods, pharmaceutical syrups and ophthalmic preparations and is the seventh most widely used preservative in cosmetics; not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance.  Four pieces of low-joule chewing gum can make a child seriously ill. Not recommended for diabetics or people with fructose intolerance.
421
E421
Mannitol Artificial sweetener and humectant; derived from seaweed or the manna ash tree, but manufactured commercially by hydrogenation of invert sugar (glucose and fructose), monosaccharides and sucrose. Possible allergen, not permitted in infant foods due to its ability to cause diarrhoea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical products are low calorie sugar-free foods, mustard, puddings, sauces, frozen fish. Other Names: 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol, mannite, manna sugar
422 Glycerol Humectant and sweetener; oily colourless alcohol; derived by decomposition of natural fats with alkalis; usually as a by-product of soap making using animal fat or vegetable oil; can be obtained from petroleum products sometimes synthesised from propylene or fermented from sugar; used in flexible coatings on sausages and cheeses, also in crystallised and dried fruit, liqueurs and vodka, marshmallows, soft drinks, desserts, confectionary, tooth paste, etc.  "Glycerine has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by tumour promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation, presumably via free radical scavenging"; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels.
E425 Konjac
Konjac gum
(i) Konjac gum
(ii) Konjac glucomannane
Gelling agent, emulsifier, stabiliser. No established daily intake recommendation.
E430 Polyoxyethylene (8) Sterate
Polyoxyl 8 stearate
Synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Emulsifier, stabiliser. Potentially cancer-inciting. See E432. Used in sauces and (mainly) cosmetics. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds. Side effects:
No known side effects in the concentrations used. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436. These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.
E431 Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate Emulsifier. Skin allergy in some people. Synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Emulsifier, stabiliser. Used in bakery products, puddings, etc. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds. No known side effects in the concentrations used. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436. These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.
E432 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20)  Emulsifier, stabiliser in a large range of foods including chewing gum, ice cream, soft drinks.  Causes fat absorption. Potentially cancer-inciting. Avoid it. Synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds.
No known side effects in the concentrations used. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436. These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.
Banned in Australia.
433
E433
Polysorbate 80
Polyoxethylene sorbitan mono-oleate
Emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids; used as synthetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances. Possible cancer causing. See E432.
E434 Polyoxethylene sorbitan monopalminate
Polysorbate 40
Tween 40
Avoid it. Possible cancer causing. A synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and palmitic acid (a natural fatty acid). Emulsifier. Found in cakes Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds. Side effects: None known in the concentrations used. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436. These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin. Banned in Australia. 
435
E435
Polyoxethylene sorbitan monostearate
Polysorbate 60
Tween 60
Avoid it. Possible cancer causing. Found in every kind of food. A synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and palmitic acid (a natural fatty acid). Emulsifier. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds. Side effects: None known in the concentrations used. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436. These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.
436
E436
Polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan tristearate, Polysorbate 65
Tween 65
Avoid it. Possible cancer causing. E436 is a synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Emulsifier, anti-foaming agent, etc.  Found in many different products. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds. Side effects:  None known in the concentrations used. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436. These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.
440(a)
E440(a)
Pectin Naturally occurring in the skins of apples; used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces; large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort.
E440(b) Amidated pectin No known adverse effects. Treated with ammonia. See 440.
441
E441
Gelatine Obtained from animal by-products, such as bones and hides. It can be produced from all species of animals. Used as thickening and gelling agent. Many different products. Acceptable Daily Intake: None determined. Side effects: None known when used in foods. Can not be used by vegans and vegetarians. Use by religious groups, such as Muslims and Jews is restricted, due to the origin of the product. Unfortunately information on origin can only be obtained from the producer. Specific halal gelatine is made from cattle.  In a huge range of foods and in some vaccines.  Possible allergen, may contain 220 (sulphur dioxide), asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware!  Classified as a food not an additive.
442
E442
Ammonium phosphatides Obtained from ammonia and phosphorylated fatty acids, mainly from rapeseed oil. Phosphates can leach calcium from the body. No known adverse effects. Emulsifier, stabiliser.  Generally produced with rapeseed oil and can thus be consumed by all religious groups. However, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be completed excluded. See 433.
E444  Sucrose acetate isobutyrate, SAIB, 
Sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate
Only in non-alcoholic flavoured cloudy drinks 300 mg/litre
E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium, headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion.
450 Sodium and potassium pyrophosphates Emulsifying salts under many names.  High intakes may upset the digestion with disturbances of the blockage of some enzymes. High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium.
E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diphosphate
(ii) Trisodium diphosphate
(iii) Tetrasodium diphosphate
(iv) Dipotassium diphosphate
(v) Tetrapotassium diphosphate
(vi) Dicalcium diphosphate
(vii) Calcium dihydrogen diphosphate
Salts of sodium/potassium/calcium with phosphates. All are produced synthetically from the respective carbonates and phosphoric acid. Used as buffers and emulsifiers. E450 (iii) also binds metals and prevents discoloration due to metals. E450 (vi) is also used as bread enhancer and calcium supplement. High intakes may upset the calcium/ phosphate equilibrium.
450(a) Ammonium phosphate,
    diabasic and monobasic
Mineral salt, buffer used with baking powders and salt substitutes.
451 Sodium and potassium triphosphate Mineral salt. Safe, but is known to cause nausea, diarrhoea, lowering of blood pressure, cyanosis and muscle spasms in large quantities.
E451 Triphosphate (i) Pentasodium triphosphate
(ii) Pentapotassium triphosphate. See 451.
Salts of sodium/potassium with phosphates. All are produced synthetically from the respective carbonates and phosphoric acid. Used as buffers, stabiliser and emulsifiers. Also used to retain water during processing. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism.
452 Sodium and potassium polyphosphates See 338.
E452 Polyphosphates (i) Sodium polyphosphate (formerly E450c(i))
(ii) Potassium polyphosphate (formerly E450c(ii))
(iii) Sodium calcium polyphosphate
(iv) Calcium polyphosphate (also 544)
(v) Ammonium polyphosphate (formerly E450c(i))
Salts of sodium/potassium/calcium/ammonium with phosphates. All are produced synthetically from the respective carbonates and phosphoric acid. Used as sequestrants (metal binders), stabiliser and emulsifiers. Also used to retain water during processing and storage.  High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism.
See 338.
E459  Beta-cyclodextrine Emulsifier
460
E460
Cellulose
microcrystalline and powdered
Crystalline or powdered form of walls of plant cells. Anti-caking agent and base for tablets; no adverse effects known, non-nutritive. Cellulose is non soluble, but can be fermented in the large intestine. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea. Due to this fact, it can not be used in weaning foods.
461
E461
Methyl cellulose prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically methylated. Thickener, emulsifier in baked food, diabetic food, soft and fizzy drinks, jelly, jam and many of 410. Can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction.
E462  Ethyl cellulose Ethylcellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically ethylated. Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsifier. Few products, and no longer permitted as emulsifier in the EU. Acceptable Daily Intake: None determined. Side effects: Ethylcellulose is practically non soluble, but can be fermented in the large intestine. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose Hydroxypropylcellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically propylated. Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsfier. Similar as cellulose, but better soluble in water. many different products. Banned in Australia. Hydroxypropyl cellulose is quite soluble, and can be fermented in the large intestine. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea. Avoid it.
464
E464
Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically modified. Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsifier. Similar as cellulose, but better soluble in water. Found in many different products. Acceptable Daily Intake: None determined. Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose is quite soluble, and can be fermented in the large intestine. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
465
E465
Methylethylcellulose Methylethylcellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically modified. Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsifier. Similar as cellulose, but with some different characteristics. for imitation cream and imitation ice cream. No known adverse effects. Methylethyl cellulose is not very soluble, and can be fermented in the large intestine. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
466
E466
Carboxymethyl cellulose, Carboxymethylcellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically modified. No known adverse effects but it could be produced from genetically engineered cotton plants. Known to cause cancer when ingested by test animals. Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsifier. Similar as cellulose, but very soluble in water. Found in many different products. Carboxymethyl cellulose is very soluble, and can be fermented in the large intestine. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea. It also lowers slightly the blood cholesterol level.
E466 Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose Thickener, emulsifier. National Cancer Institute of America states it "should be forbidden as a food additive. See 466.
E468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose May be re-classified as a miscellaneous additive
E469 Sodium caseinate Emulsifier, mineral salt made from casein in cow's milk for thickener and beverage whitener, dessert mixes, reduced cream whip. No known adverse effects.
470 Magnesium stearate No known effects for food use. Emulsifier, stabiliser, artificial sweetener, anti-caking and release agent.
E470(a) Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids (i) Sodium salts of fatty acids
(ii) Potassium salts of fatty acids
(iii) Calcium salts of fatty acids
Banned in Australia. Salts of natural fatty acids, mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The acids are a mixture of stearic-, oleic-, palmitic- and myristinic acid. Emulsifiers and stabilisers. Can cause gastric upsets. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.
E470(b)  Magnesium salts of fatty acids Emulsifier. See 470(a)
471
E471
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) Synthetic fats, produced from glycerol and natural fatty acids, mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different products, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat. For use in baked goods, all types of dairy foods, margarine and ice cream. No known adverse effects. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. The individual components are also produced normally in the body when digesting normal fat. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.
472(a) Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Esters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with other natural acids. Occurs in fruit skins and nuts.  Emulsifier, stabiliser, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. Used in high fat bread, edible fats, whipped fats and meat products. No known adverse effects, but less frequently it may cause diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.
E472(a) Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Emulsifier, stabiliser, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. Used in high fat bread, edible fats, whipped fats and meat products. No known adverse effects, but less frequently it may cause diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion. See 472(a).
472(b) Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Emulsifier, stabiliser, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. No known adverse effects, but less frequently it may cause diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion. See 472(a).
E472(b) Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Emulsifier, stabiliser, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. No known adverse effects, but less frequently it may cause diarrhoea, theist, dizziness and mental confusion. See 472(a).
472(c) Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol Emulsifier, stabiliser, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. No known adverse effects, but less frequently it may cause diarrhoea, theist, dizziness and mental confusion.  See 330.  See 472(a).
E472(c) Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Emulsifier, stabiliser, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. No known adverse effects, but less frequently it may cause diarrhoea, theist, dizziness and mental confusion.  See 472(a).
472(d) Tartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol See tartaric acid 334.
E472(d) Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids No adverse effects recorded. See 472(a).
472(e) Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol See acetic acid 260.
E472(e) Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids No adverse effects recorded. See 472(a).
E472(f)  Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids No adverse effects recorded. See 472(a).
473
E473
Sucrose esters of fatty acids Esters of sugar and synthetic fats, produced from glycerol and natural fatty acids. The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with sugar. Emulsifier and modifying agent.  The products are first digested to sugar and fats. The body metabolises all components identical to sugar and natural fat. The individual components of the mono- and diglycerides are also produced normally in the body when digesting normal fat. May cause stomach pain, nausea, bloating, diarrhoea. May contain residues of solvents used in making.  Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical. See 471
E474 Sucroglycerides Avoid it. Esters of sugar and fats, produced from sugar and natural fats. The fats are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components. Emulsifiers and stabilisers. Found in many different products. Acceptable Daily Intake: 16 mg/kg bodyweight. The products are first digested to sugar and fats. The body metabolises all components identical to sugar and natural fat. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical. Not registered for use in Australia.
475
E475
Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids Emulsifier, stabiliser made from fats and oils of either animal or vegetable. Combination of polyglycerol and natural fats. Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol. The fats are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components. Used in cakes, dairy and imitation dairy products.  No known adverse effects.
476
E476
Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoliec acid Combination of polyglycerol and castoroil (oil of the tree Ricinus sp. ). Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol. The product generally is a mixture of different components. Emulsifier, stabiliser allowing chocolate coating to be spread more thinly to save costs. No known adverse effects. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight.
477 Propylene glycol mono- and di-esters Emulsifier, stabiliser. Avoid it.
E477 Propane-1, 2-Diol esters of fatty acids Emulsifier, stabiliser. Combination of propanediol and natural fats. Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products glycerol is replaced by propanediol. The fats are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components. Can be derived from petroleum; no known adverse effects.  Used in confectionary, soft and fizzy drinks, toppings, ice cream, processed meat.  Both components are normally present in the body and will be metabolised in the normal way. High concentrations of propyleneglycol can cause eczema in sensitive persons, but not normally from the use in foods. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical. Avoid it.
E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1, 2-diol Combination of lactic acid, glycerol, propanediol and natural fats. Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products glycerol is replaced by propanediol. The fats are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components. Emulsifier, stabiliser, whipping agent, plasticiser and surface active agents. May cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, theist, dizziness and mental confusion. Avoid it.
E479(b) Thermally oxidized soy bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Likely GM soy. Thermally oxidized soy bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components.
480
E480
Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate Awaiting results of safety studies. Produced by a reaction of octane with maleic acid anhydride, followed by a reaction with sodium bisulphite. Emulsifier, wetting agent with detergent and dispersant properties.  Helps syrup stay evenly spread through a product, dairy products, edible gums, soft drinks, cordials, syrups.
481
E481
Sodium oleyl or stearoyl lactylate
stearoyl-2-lactylate
Flour treatment stabiliser, emulsifier to make it able to retain shape after going through the machinery. No known adverse effects.
482
E482
Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate Flour treatment stabiliser, emulsifier. No known adverse effects, waiting for test results.  See 481.
E483 Stearyl tartrate Combination of stearic acid and tartaric acid, resulting in a mixture of several components. The origin of stearic acid can be or plant or animal fat, although in practice nearly always vegetable oil will be used. Emulsifier, stabiliser.  Banned in Australia. Avoid it.
491
E491
Sorbitan monostearate Emulsifier, sweetener, thickener, retains moisture, modifying agent. No known adverse effects.
492
E492
Sorbitan tristearate
Span 65
Emulsifier, stabiliser. Only allowed in compounded chocolate.  May increase the absorption of liquid paraffin and fat-soluble substances. Avoid it.
493
E493
Sorbitan monolaurate
Span 20
Produced from sorbitol and lauric acid, a normal fatty acid from vegetable or animal origin. Emulsifier, stabiliser stopping sugar mixes from foaming. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.
494
E494
Sorbitan mono-oleate
Span 80
Produced from sorbitol and lauric acid, a normal fatty acid from vegetable or animal origin. Emulsifier, stabiliser stopping yeast products foaming.  Banned in Australia. Used in pharmaceuticals. Avoid it.
495
E495
Sorbitan monopalmitate
Span 40
Produced from sorbitol and lauric acid, a normal fatty acid from vegetable or animal origin. Emulsifier, stabiliser as alternative for 491. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.

İMBM
PO Box 44, Klemzig, SA, 5087